Berne Convention

Protection of Literary and Artistic Works

The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works is an international agreement governing copyright accepted in Switzerland in 1886. The Berne Convention requires its signatories to recognize copyright works of other members of the Berne Union in the same way as it recognizes the copyright of its own nationals. The Berne Convention authorizes countries to allow “fair” uses of copyrighted works in other publications or broadcasts.

The Berne Convention requires its member states to recognize the copyright of works from other member states in the same way it recognizes the copyright of its own nationals. The Berne Convention also requires member states to provide strong minimum standards for copyright law. Copyright must be automatic. It is prohibited to require formal registration for copyright. The copyright law of the country where copyright is claimed shall also be applied. Berne Convention authorizes countries to allow fair uses of copyrighted works in other publications or broadcasts.

Copyright Protection Duration

All works: a minimum term of at least 50 years after the author’s death. (except photographic and cinematographic)
Photography: a minimum term of 25 years from the year the photograph was created.
Cinematography: a minimum of 50 years after first showing or 50 years after creation if it hasn’t been shown within 50 years after the creation.

Berne Convention Contracting Countries:

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Andorra
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahamas
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Barbados
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bhutan
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Brunei Darussalam
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cabo Verde
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Comoros
Congo
Cook Islands
Costa Rica
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Côte d’Ivoire
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Estonia
Eswatini
Fiji
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Grenada
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Haiti
Holy See
Honduras
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kiribati
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Malta
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Micronesia (Federated States of)
Monaco
Mongolia
Montenegro
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua

 

Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Republic of Korea
Republic of Moldova
Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Thailand
Togo
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Tuvalu
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United Republic of Tanzania
United States of America
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
Viet Nam
Yemen
Zambia
Zimbabwe
the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Copyright

Copyright protects original works that were created by an Author:
Literary Works (novels, poems, textbooks, letters, reports, lectures, speeches), Musical Works, Artistic Works (paintings, sculptures, drawings, photographs), Cinematograph Films / Videos, Sound Recordings, Broadcasts , Programme-carrying Signals, Published Editions of Books, and Computer Programs.

Patents

Patents protect the underlying Invention of an Article:
Processes or methods for producing a results, Gadgets (Non-Electronic, electronic, electrical, mechanical), Machines, Manufactured Articles, New Compositions, Biotechnology (Medical, Scientific or Microbiological Processes), and Chemical or Pharmaceutical Compounds.

Trade Marks

Trade Marks protect the identity of your Brand:
Names, Logos, Slogans, Three-dimensional Marks, Colors, Holograms, Motions / Multimedia, Positions, Gestures, Olfactory (smells / scents), Sounds / Tunes, Tastes, Textures.

Industrial Designs

Registered Designs protect the appearance of an Article:
The distinct shape and design of Devices, Gadgets, Machines and / or Products such as Vehicle Parts, Tyres, Shoes, Clothing, Appliances, Stationary, Mobile Phones, Handbags, Furniture.